Kicking it.

 Young bloke presents after footy practice last week. Kicking when had sudden pain in his right groin. Did what most do and ignored but still painful and has not improved with rest.

He had been reviewed by the team physio and given a diagnosis of a sprain and persisted playing through his pain.

O/E
Fit young man.
Tender on even passive motion at the hip. Power of hip flexion and knee extension both reduced due to pain.

Clinical suspicion leads you to order a pelvic X-ray.

HIP

 

HIP 2
The above films show an avulsion fracture of the Anterior inferior iliac spine. with minor separation.

 

Avulsion fractures of the pelvis.

Points to remember:

Pelvic avulsion fractures are seen in patients aged 14 to 25.

This fracture is due to forced hip flexion often eccentric breaking the physis.

Most common are Ischial tuberostiy approx 50% (sprinters/tennis players)

Anterior inferior iliac spine (15-20%) (kicking as above)

Anterior superior iliac spine (15-20%) (also sprinting)

Treatment is conservative unless significant (1.5cm+) seperation has occured. very important to slowly return to activity as re-injury is common.

I have a low threshold for imaging young atheletes with injuries sustained at times of maximum effort as these fractures are common and do follow a different course to a standard sprain. (slower and more painful generally)

A beautiful summary image of these fractures from learning radiology

IMG_0273-0.JPG

Refs: http://www.learningradiology.com/archives06/COW%20205-Ischial%20Avulsion%20Fx/avulseischiumcorrect.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2465275/

An Awful case and pun.

A 70yo woman presents to ED with the following lesions which have been present for 2 weeks now and have steadily progressed from small raised areas into the large, painful areas seen below with moderate amounts of necrosis.

The patient had presented to ED a week earlier and was given a presumptive diagnosis despite the lack of obvious exposure. some antibiotics given for probable secondary infection at that time.

She has no history of major diseases of any kind other than well controlled hypertension (on metoprolol)

 No allergies.

photo_1

She is a keen gardener who has a pet dog. She has not visited any farms or abattoirs in the recent past.

 

photo_2   photo_5 photo_4

Further advice was sought from dermatology (email photos sent) which received the following reply:

“Hi
Thanks for these excellent photos of Orf, probably acquired via contact with a sheep, goat or other animal. Symptomatic management with a topical antiseptic such as Betadine dressings and analgesics is correct.”

Orf is a parapox virus which is passed amongst sheep, goats and a number of other animals (including red squirrels apparently)

It causes lesions like those shown but often much less impressive with papules which often burst releasing purulent (and infective) material.

Most people effected by orf are shearers, farmers and of concern to myself is children with pet lambs.

 kids feeding the lambs

Orf is something that presents reasonably frequently to GP land here in rural(ish) NZ. Many of the people most at risk for orf often treat themselves. Stories of shearers curetting their own lesions abound.

Follow up (2 weeks later)

As you can see most of the lesions have improved significantly with almost complete resolution of some of the later lesions which never ruptured.

photo_4 b photo_3 b photo_1 b

Final  follow-up 8-10 weeks post initial presentation:

I’ve since seen the patient at the supermarket and can confirm complete resolution without any scarring of all of the lesions. She now gardens with gloves on and thinks the only possible exposure was something her dog must have rolled in.

One of the best going cases of Orf I have seen. It can be much more aggressive in those with immunocompromised but as mentioned earlier the patient is very fit and well with no major health issues.

So there you have it one Orful case… *drops mic*

PS. Sorry I Haven’t posted in ages. Will do better in future. :)

References: 

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/what-is-orf/

“Dad’s acting like a goldfish.”

55 year old man presents to ED in the presence of his son after becoming confused at the supermarket whilst doing his morning shopping.

No memory of why he was shopping, no memory of being in the supermarket or how he arrived there.

shopping trolley

Unable to remember drive to the hospital, unable to recall names of team.

repeated attempts to orientate to time and place. “whats going on bro?”

no other change in cognition. preservation of longer term memory.

denies drug use, no History of epilepsy, migraines, head injury.

 Normal neurological exam.

Throughout the time in the department the patient would catch the eye of staff who they knew before the episode wave and say “bro, whats going on?”

Bloods showed no abnormalities.

This constellation of symptoms is consistent with a diagnosis of:

 Pivot_Wave

 Transient global amnesia.

Diagnosis of exclusion.

Features:

Rapid lost of antegrade memory.

Repeated attempts to orientate themselves. often with a repetitive manner.

No change in level of consciousness.

lasting less than 24 hours.

Clinicians report perseveration as the predominant feature. Many can remember the specific mannerism of the TGA patients they have seen.

Rare condition: incidence in those over the age of 50 being: 20-30/100,000 per year

The cause of TGA is unknown but a number of hypotheses exist with migraines, epilepsy being initially linked but then more recently discounted. A vascular hypothesis is another disputed possible cause. With this number of possible causes being postulated it’s pretty clear we are unsure of the cause. This is likely due to TGA being a syndrome with multiple causes leading to hippocampal dysfunction.

The most comforting feature of TGA is that patients with “pure” TGA eg: only memory impairment which resolves they have a normal mortality and morbidity and a low chance of further events.

Follow-up:

Patient was admitted to the ward for observation, symptoms improved with return of normal memory within 8 hours at which time he stopped waving. No memory of events of the day.

 Ref: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600033/

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/transient-global-amnesia

A common Kiwi presentation.

 I recently saw a patient for an off work certificate who was somewhat unusual for New Zealand.

He worked on a mine in Queensland and had been having a holiday before returning to NZ. Whilst wandering in the shallows he stood on something sharp and had severe pain in his foot. Lifting his foot he had four puncture marks and assumed he had stood on some coral.

He then describes ascending pain,  spreading erythema and severe oedema and pre-syncopal symptoms.

His mates loaded him into the Ute and rushed him to the local hospital.

On arrival he was mildly hypotensive BP 100/60 with a relative bradycardia of 50bpm for a patient in severe pain.

He was treated with a combination of oral, IV analgesia and hot water immersion (which he reports no effect from) and was kept for observation. Discharged with oral antibiotics and returned to NZ.

Discharge diagnosis of “Fish envenomation NOS”

He was kind enough to share his photos from the “holiday from hell”

 

foot 1

24 hours post injury.

foot 3

 Impressive oedema.

foot 4

 72 hours post injury.

When seen in clinic (2 weeks post injury) the patients oedema was resolving but he couldn’t get his boot on yet. The blistered areas had sloughed off and good granulation tissue in the bases. As he was working for a rich Aussie mining company I put him off for another week ;)

So I went looking for some info on fish envenomation’s. The Team at LITFL did a great review in 2009 so I chased about to see what the literature has come up with since then.

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/2009/04/scorpionfish-stonefish-lionfish/ (LITFL discussion of management)

Published at the exact same time as the LITFL review was a case series from Singapore hospital of 30 patients, showing most did very well and antivenom was not used very often.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19495521

 An article in French which discusses a case leading to cardiovascular collapse:

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20099677

My hand’s a bit munted.

Bloke arrived in ED holding  his “Munted hand!”

Patient was clearly in pain with a deformed hand:

image

Mechanism of injury was fall from BMX wedging hand between a large rock and tree.

image

Analgesia and off to x-ray:

metacarpal disolcation 3

 

Metacarpal dislocation 2

The films show Carpometacarpal dislocations of 3rd 4th and 5th (and possibly 2nd according to radiology) But no associated fractures on any views.

Titrated fentanyl was given for analgesia and midazolam was added for the reduction.
The reduction only required minor force applied to base of metacarpals and longitudinal traction.

Post reduction films showed:

metacarpal dislocation reduced

Patient was taken to theatre later that day for K-wire fixation.

The patient was planning to be back on the bike after removal but couldn’t help himself and was out riding 4 days post cast removal (day 11 post reduction)

So the Munter with the munted hand is doing well. K-wires removed at clinic increasing strength and not too much stiffness. (the benefit of early mobilisation?)

I was going to write more about Carpometacarpal Dislocations but Chris Partyka has covered it so well over at The blunt dissection I thought pointing you there would be better.

http://thebluntdissection.org/2013/04/quick-case-01/